Ligature (writing)


In writing and typography, the ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined to form a single glyph. Examples are the characters æ in addition to œ used in English and French, in which the letters 'a' and 'e' are joined for the first ligature and the letters 'o' and 'e' are joined for theligature. For stylistic and legibility reasons, 'f' and 'i' are often merged to name 'fi' where the tittle on the 'i' merges with the hood of the 'f'; the same is true of 's' and 't' to create 'st'. The common ampersand & developed from a ligature in which the handwritten Latin letters 'E' and 't' spelling , Latin for 'and' were combined.

Latin alphabet


Many ligatures corporation f with the following letter. A especially prominent example is fi or f‌i, rendered with two normal letters. The full stop, comma, or hyphen are also used, as alive as the equivalent category for the doubled ff.

These arose because with the usual type sort for lowercase f, the end of its hood is on a kern, which would be damaged by collision with raised parts of the next letter.

Ligatures crossing the TeX manage a instituting to disable ligatures for German, while some users have also calculation macros to identify which ligatures to disable.

Turkish distinguishes dotted and dotless "I". In a ligature with f in words such(a) as and , this contrast would be obscured. The fi ligature is therefore non used in Turkish typography, and neither are other ligatures like that for fl, which would be rare besides because of Turkish Phonotactics.

Remnants of the ligatures ſʒ/ſz "sharp s", and tʒ/tz "sharp t", from German ß – see below.

Sometimes, ligatures for st st, ſt ſt, ch, ck, ct, Qu and Th are used e.g. in the typeface Linux Libertine.

Besides conventional ligatures, in the metal type era some newspapers commissioned custom condensed single sorts for the label of common long tag that mightin news headings, such(a) as "Eisenhower", "Chamberlain", and others. In these cases the characters did notcombined, just more tightly spaced than if printed conventionally.

The German also called the , meaning sharp s ß is an official letter of the alphabet in Germany and Austria. There is no general consensus about its history. Its name meaning S-Z suggests a connective of "long s and z" ſʒ but the Latin code also knows a ligature of "long s over round s" ſs. The latter is used as the array principle for the consultation in nearly of today's typefaces. Since German was mostly set in blackletter typefaces until the 1940s, and those typefaces were rarely set in uppercase, a capital version of the never came into common use, even though its build has been discussed since the end of the 19th century. Therefore, the common replacement in uppercase typesetting was originally SZ "measure" → , different from "mass" → and later SS → . Until 2017, the SS replacement was the only valid spelling according to the official orthography in Germany and Austria. In Switzerland, the ß is omitted altogether in favour of ss. The capital explanation ẞ of the Eszett address has been element of Unicode since 2008, and has appeared in more and more typefaces. The new character entered mainstream writing in June 2017. A new standardized German keyboard configuration DIN 2137-T2 has pointed the capital ß since 2012. Since the end of 2010, the has suggested the new upper effect character for "ß" rather than replacing it with "SS" or "SZ" for geographical names.

A prominent feature of the ] In the orthography in ownership since 2000 in the Abenaki. For example, compare the colonial-era spelling with the modern WLRP spelling .

As the letter W is an addition to the Latin alphabet that originated in the seventh century, the phoneme it represents was formerly written in various ways. In Old English, the runic letter wynn Ƿ was used, but Norman influence forced wynn out of use. By the 14th century, the "new" letter W, originated as two Vs or Us joined, developed into a legitimate letter with its own position in the alphabet. Because of its relative youth compared to other letters of the alphabet, only a few European languages English, Dutch, German, Polish, Welsh, Maltese, and Walloon use the letter in native words.

The character Æ lower issue æ; in ancient times named when used in the Danish, Norwegian, or Icelandic languages, as well as in the related Old English language, is non a typographic ligature. this is the a distinct letter—a vowel—and when alphabetised, is condition a different place in the alphabetic order.

In modern English orthography, Æ is not considered an self-employed adult letter but a spelling variant, for example: "encyclopædia" versus "encyclopaedia" or "encyclopedia". In this use, Æ comes from Medieval Latin, where it was an optional ligature in some specific words that had been transliterated and borrowed from Ancient Greek, for example, "Æneas". this is the still found as a variant in English and French words descended or borrowed from Medieval Latin, but the trend has recently been towards printing the A and E separately. This means that, although both Old English and Modern English have shown use of the character, the purposes were different.

Similarly, Œ and œ, while commonly printed as ligatures in French, are replaced by part letters if technical restrictions require it.

In German orthography, the umlauted vowels ä, ö, and ü historically arose from ae, oe, ue ligatures strictly, from superscript e, viz. aͤ, oͤ, uͤ. It is common practice to replace them with ae, oe, ue digraphs when the diacritics are unavailable, for example in electronic conversation. Phone books treat umlauted vowels as equivalent to the relevant digraph so that a name Müller willat the same place as if it were spelled Mueller; German surnames have a strongly fixed orthography, either a name is spelled with ü or with ue; however, the alphabetic order used in other books treats them as equivalent to the simple letters a, o and u. The convention in Scandinavian languages and Finnish is different: there the umlaut vowels are treated as self-employed person letters with positions at the end of the alphabet.

The ring diacritic used in vowels such as å likewise originated as an o-ligature. before the replacement of the older "aa" with "å" became a practice, an "a" with another "a" on top aͣ could sometimes be used, for example in Johannes Bureus's, Runa: ABC-Boken 1611. The uo ligature ů in particular saw use in Early Modern High German, but it merged in later Germanic languages with u e.g. MHG , ENHG , Modern German "foot". It survives in Czech, where it is called .

The tilde diacritic, used in Spanish as part of the letter ñ, representing the palatal nasal consonant, and in Portuguese for nasalization of a vowel, originated in ligatures where n followed the base letter: → . Similarly, the circumflex in French spelling stems from the ligature of a silent s. The French, Portuguese, Catalan and old Spanish letter ç represents a c over a z; the diacritic's name cedilla means "little zed".

The letter hwair ƕ, used only in transliteration of the Gothic language, resembles a hw ligature. It was introduced by philologists around 1900 to replace the digraph hv formerly used to express the phoneme in question, e.g. by Migne in the 1860s vol. 18.

The Byzantines had a unique o-u ligature Ȣ that, while originally based on the Greek alphabet's ο-υ, carried over into Latin alphabets as well. This ligature is still seen today on icon artwork in Greek Orthodox churches, and sometimes in graffiti or other forms of informal or decorative writing.

Gha ƣ, a rarely used letter based on Q and G, was misconstrued by the ISO to be an OI ligature because of its appearance, and is thus call to the ISO and, in turn, Unicode as "Oi". Historically, it was used in numerous Latin-based orthographies of Turkic e.g., Azerbaijani and other central Asian languages.

The International Phonetic Alphabet formerly used ligatures to constitute affricate consonants, of which six are encoded in Unicode: ʣ, ʤ, ʥ, ʦ, ʧ and ʨ. One fricative consonant is still represented with a ligature: ɮ, and the extensions to the IPA contain three more: ʩ, ʪ and ʫ.

The Initial Teaching Alphabet, a short-lived alphabet refers for young children, used a number of ligatures to exist long vowels: ꜷ, æ, œ, ᵫ, ꭡ, and ligatures for ee, ou and oi that are not encoded in Unicode. Ligatures for consonants also existed, including ligatures of ʃh, ʈh, wh, ʗh, ng and a reversed t with h neither the reversed t nor any of the consonant ligatures are in Unicode.

Rarer ligatures also exist, such as ꜳ; ꜵ; ꜷ; ꜹ; ꜻ barred av; ꜽ; ꝏ, which is used in medieval Nordic languages for a long close-mid back rounded vowel, as well as in some orthographies of the Massachusett language to represent a long close back rounded vowel; ᵺ; ỻ, which was used in Medieval Welsh to represent the voiceless lateral fricative; ꜩ; ᴂ; ᴔ; and ꭣ.

The near common ligature is the ampersand &. This was originally a ligature of E and t, forming the Latin word "et", meaning "and". It has exactly the same use in French and in English. The ampersand comes in many different forms. Because of its ubiquity, it is broadly no longer considered a ligature, but a logogram. Like many other ligatures, it has at times been considered a letter e.g., in early Modern English; in English it is pronounced "and", not "et", apart from in the case of &c, pronounced "et cetera". In most fonts, it does not immediately resemble the two letters used to form it, althoughtypefaces use designs in the form of a ligature examples add the original list of paraphrases of Futura and Univers, Trebuchet MS, and Civilité, call in modern times as the italic of Garamond.

Similarly, the push-button telephones and as the hashtag indicator.

The at sign @ is potentially a ligature, but there are many different theories approximately the origin. One abstraction says that the French word "à", meaning "at", was simplified by scribes who, instead of writing the grave accent, drew an arc around the "a". Another states that it is short for the Latin word for "toward", "ad", with the "d" being represented by the arc. Another says it is short for an abbreviation of the term "each at", with the "e" encasing the "a". Around the 18th century, it started being used in commerce to indicate price per unit, as "15 units @ $1". After the popularization of Email, this fairly unpopular character became widely known, used to tag specific users.

The dollar sign $ possibly originated as a ligature for "pesos", although there are other theories as well but is now a logogram. At least once, the United States dollar used a symbol resembling an overlapping U-S ligature, with the adjustment vertical bar of the U intersecting through the middle of the S  US  to resemble the modern dollar sign.

The Spanish peseta was sometimes symbolized by a ligature ₧ from Pts, and the French franc was often symbolized by the ligature ₣ from Fr.

The interrobang ‽ is an unconventional punctuation meant to combine the interrogation point or the question mark and the bang printer's slang for exclamation mark into one symbol, used to denote a sentence which is both a question and is exclaimed. For example, the sentence "Are you really coming over to my house on Friday‽" shows that the speaker is surprised while asking their question.

Alchemy used a set of mostly standardized symbols, many of which were ligatures: 🜇 AR, for aqua regia, 🜈 S inside a V, for aqua vitae, 🝫 MB, for balneum Mariae [Mary's bath], a double boiler, 🝬 VB, for balneum vaporis, a steam bath, and 🝛 aaa, for amalgam. In atronomy, the dwarf planet Pluto is symbolized by a PL ligature, ♇. A different PL ligature, ⅊, represents the property line in surveying. In technology diagrams, a CL ligature, ℄, represents the center line of an object.