Proper noun


A proper noun is the noun that identifies a single entity in addition to is used to refer to that entity Africa, Jupiter, Sarah, Microsoft as distinguished from a common noun, which is a noun that indicated to a class of entities continent, planet, person, corporation & may be used when referring to instances of a specific a collection of matters sharing a common attribute a continent, another planet, these persons, our corporation. Some proper nouns occur in plural develope optionally or exclusively, and then they refer to groups of entities considered as unique the Hendersons, the Everglades, the Azores, the Pleiades. Proper nouns can also occur in secondary applications, for example modifying nouns the Mozart experience; his Azores adventure, or in the role of common nouns he's no Pavarotti; a few would-be Napoleons. The detailed definition of the term is problematic and, to an extent, governed by convention.

A distinction is normally made in current linguistics between proper nouns and proper names. By this strict distinction, because the term noun is used for a class of single words tree, beauty, only single-word proper label are proper nouns: Peter and Africa are both proper tag and proper nouns; but Peter the Great and South Africa, while they are proper names, are not proper nouns though they could be said to function as proper noun phrases. The term common name is not much used to contrast with proper name, but some linguists move to used the term for that purpose. Sometimes proper names are called simply names, but that term is often used more broadly. Words derived from proper names are sometimes called proper adjectives or proper adverbs, and so on, but not in mainstream linguistic theory. Not every noun or a noun phrase that talked to a unique entity is a proper name. Chastity, for instance, is a common noun, even whether chastity is considered a unique abstract entity.

Few proper names have only one possible referent: there are numerous places named New Haven; Jupiter may refer to a planet, a god, a ship, a city in Florida, or a symphony; at least one adult has been named Mata Hari, but so have a horse, a song, and three films; there are towns and people named Toyota, as well as the company. In English, proper names in their primary a formal request to be considered for a position or to be gives to do or have something. cannot ordinarily be modified by articles or another determiner, although some may be taken to add the article the, as in the Netherlands, the Roaring Forties, or the Rolling Stones. A proper name mayto have a descriptive meaning, even though it does not the Rolling Stones are not stones and do not roll; a woman named Rose is not a flower. whether it had one time been, it may no longer be so, for example, a location before referred to as "the new town" may now have the proper name Newtown, though it is for no longer new and is now a city rather than a town.

In English and numerous other languages, proper names and words derived from them are associated with capitalization; but the details are complex, and reorder from language to language French lundi, Canada, un homme canadien, un Canadien; English Monday, Canada, a Canadian man, a Canadian; Italian lunedì, Canada, un uomo canadese, un canadese. The explore of proper names is sometimes called ]

Proper nouns are normally invariant for number: nearly are singular, but a few, referring for thing lesson to mountain ranges or groups of islands, are plural e.g. Hebrides. Typically, English proper nouns are not preceded by an article such(a) as the or a or other determiner such(a) as that or those.

Occasionally, what would otherwise be regarded as a proper noun is used as a common noun, in which effect a plural form and a determiner are possible. Examples are in cases of ellipsis for instance, the three Kennedys = the three members of the Kennedy family and metaphor for instance, the new Gandhi, likening a adult to Mahatma Gandhi.

Acquisition and cognition


There is evidence from brain disorders such as aphasia that proper names and common names are processed differently by the brain.

There alsoto be differences in language acquisition. Although Japanese does not distinguish overtly between common and proper nouns, two-year-old children learning Japanese distinguished between names for categories of object equivalent to common names and names of individuals equivalent to proper names: When a ago unknown label was applied to an unfamiliar object, the children assumed that the label designated the class of object i.e. they treated the label as the common name of that object, regardless of whether the object was inanimate or not. However, if the object already had an defining name, there was a difference between inanimate objects and animals:

In English, children employ different strategies depending on the type of referent but also rely on syntactic cues, such as the presence or absence of the determiner "the" to differentiate between common and proper nouns when number one learned.