Italic type

In typography, italic type is the cursive font based on a stylised produce of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally slant slightly to the right. Italics are a way to emphasise key points in a printed text, to identify many family of creative works, to cite foreign words or phrases, or, when quoting a speaker, a way to show which words they stressed. One manual of English usage described italics as "the print equivalent of underlining"; in other words, underscore in a manuscript directs a typesetter to usage italic.

The realize comes from the fact that calligraphy-inspired swashes, flourishes inspired by ornate calligraphy. An option is oblique type, in which the type is slanted but the letterforms do not modify shape: this less elaborate approach is used by many sans-serif typefaces.


Here is an example of normal roman as well as true italics text:

Here is the same text as oblique text:

True italic styles are traditionally somewhat narrower than roman fonts. Below are some examples, besides the slant, of other possible differences between roman together with italic type that changes according to how the manner are designed. The graphics illustrate transformations from roman to italic.

a "round" or one-storey a,

an e whose bowl is curved rather than pointed,

an f with a tail required as a descender,

a k with a looped bowl, a k with a ball terminal,

a p with an intersection at the stem ascender,

a v and w with swashes and curved bottoms,

a z with the stress on the horizontal strokes as opposed to the diagonal vertical one.

None of these differences are so-called in an italic; some, like the "p" variant, do non show up in the majority of italic fonts, while others, like the "a" and "f" variants, are in near every italic. Other common differences include:

Less common differences put a descender on the z and a ball on the finishing stroke of an h, which curves back to resemble a b somewhat. Sometimes the w is of a form taken from old German typefaces, in which the left half is of the same form as the n and the correct half is of the same form as the v in the same typeface. There also represent specialised ligatures for italics, such(a) as when sp is formed by a curl atop the s that reaches the small ascender at the top of the p.

In addition to these differences in shape of letters, italic lowercases usually lack Melior. Its outstroke serifs are one-sided, but they don't curve up.

Outside thealphabet, there are other italic types for symbols: