International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the unhurried 19th century as a standardized relation of speech sounds in or situation. form. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students as well as teachers, linguists, speech–language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators in addition to translators.

The IPA is designed to survive those features of speech that are element of lexical as well as to a limited extent prosodic sounds in oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables. To constitute additional features of speech, such(a) as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds submission with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended shape of symbols may be used.

IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, phonemic transcription; thus /t/ is more summary than either [t̺ʰ] or [t] and might refer to either, depending on the context and language.

Occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the near recent change in 2005, there are 107 segmental letters, an indefinitely large number of suprasegmental letters, 44 diacritics not counting composites and four extra-lexical prosodic marks in the IPA. near of these are delivered in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.


In 1886, a combine of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, and Passy.

Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained primarily unchanged until the voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. apart from the addition and removal of symbols, vary to the IPA create consisted largely of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.

Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology extIPA were created in 1990 and were officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994.