IPA Braille


IPA Braille is the advanced standard Braille encoding of a International Phonetic Alphabet IPA, as recognized by a International Council on English Braille.

A braille relation of the IPA was first created by Merrick as well as Potthoff in 1934, as well as published in London. It was used in France, Germany, & anglophone countries. However, it was not updated as the IPA evolved, and by 1989 had become obsolete. In 1990 it was officially reissued by BAUK, but in a corrupted name that presented it largely unworkable. In 1997 BANA created a completely new system for the United States and Canada. However, it was incompatible with braille IPA elsewhere in the world and in addition proved to be cumbersome and often inadequate. In 2008 Robert Englebretson revised the Merrick and Potthoff notation and by 2011 this had been accepted by BANA. this is the largely true to the original in consonants and vowels, though the diacritics were completely reworked, as necessitated by the major revisions in print IPA diacritics since 1934. The diacritics were also provided more systematic, and follow rather than precede the base letters. However, it has no general procedure for marking tone, and non all diacritics can be written.

IPA Braille does not ownership the conventions of English Braille. it is for set off by slash or square brackets, which indicate that the intervening material is IPA rather than national orthography. Thus brackets are requested in braille even when not used in print.

Punctuation and code switching


The only punctuation which is defined is the period syllable break, full stop, comma pause, hyphen morpheme break, and rightward arrow phonological realization.

For any other punctuation, you must opt out of IPA coding.

The primary indication of IPA coding are the brackets, square or slash depending on whether the transcription is phonetic or phonemic. These are marked by ⠘:

⠰ opts out of IPA. A single spokesperson indicates that the following cell is to be read in the national orthography. Doubled, ⠰⠰, it indicates that the coming after or as a total of. string is to be read in orthography, up to the opt-in indicator ⠰⠆, which marks the end of the non-IPA passage. These are only used for non-IPA or nonstandard IPA strings within IPA brackets. An example is the use of parentheses to kind an optional consonant or vowel, since parentheses are not defined for IPA Braille.