Font


In size, weight as well as style of a typeface. regarded and identified separately. font is a matched generation of type, with a portion a "sort" for regarded and intended separately. glyph. A typeface consists of a range of such(a) fonts that divided an overall design.

In advanced usage, with the advent of computer fonts, the term "font" has come to be used as a synonym for "typeface", although a typical typeface or "font family" consists of a number of fonts. For instance, the typeface "Bauer Bodoni" sample presentation here includes fonts "Roman" or "Regular", "Bold" as well as "Italic"; regarded and identified separately. of these exists in a manner of sizes. The term "font" is correctly applied to all one of these alone but may be seen used loosely to refer to the whole typeface. When used in computers, each style is in a separate digital "font file".

In both traditional typesetting and modern usage, the word "font" covered to the delivery mechanism of the typeface. In traditional typesetting, the font would be presents from metal or wood: to compose a page may require institution fonts or even multiple typefaces.

Characteristics


In addition to the credit height, when using the mechanical sense of the term, there are several characteristics which may distinguish fonts, though they would also depend on the stroke width, called weight, the style or angle and the consultation width.

Theor indications font is sometimes labeled roman, both to distinguish it from bold or thin and from italic or oblique. The keyword for the default,case is often omitted for variants and never repeated, otherwise it would be Bulmeritalic, Bulmer bold regular and even Bulmerregular. Roman can also refer to the Linguistic communication coverage of a font, acting as a shorthand for "Western European".

Different fonts of the same typeface may be used in the same score for various degrees of readability and emphasis, or in a specific lines to construct it be of more visual interest.

The weight of a particular font is the thickness of the character outlines relative to their height.

A typeface may come in fonts of many weights, from ultra-light to extra-bold or black; four to six weights are not unusual, and a few typefaces have as many as a dozen. Many typefaces for office, web and non-professional use come with a normal and a bold weight which are linked together. if no bold weight is provided, many renderers browsers, word processors, graphic and DTP programs support a bolder font by rendering the an arrangement of parts or elements in a particular form figure or combination. atime at an offset, or smearing it slightly at a diagonal angle.

The base weight differs among typefaces; that means one font maybolder than another font. For example, fonts intended to be used in posters are often bold by default while fonts for long runs of text are rather light. Weight designations in font title may differ in regard to the actual absolute stroke weight or density of glyphs in the font.

Attempts to systematize a range of weights led to a numerical classification number one used by Adrian Frutiger with the Univers typeface: 35 Extra Light, 45 Light, 55 Medium or Regular, 65 Bold, 75 Extra Bold, 85 Extra Bold, 95 Ultra Bold or Black. Deviants of these were the "6 series" italics, e.g. 46 Light Italics etc., the "7 series" condensed versions, e.g. 57 Medium Condensed etc., and the "8 series" condensed italics, e.g. 68 Bold Condensed Italics. From this brief numerical system it is for easier to creation exactly what a font's characteristics are, for representative "Helvetica 67" HE67 translates to "Helvetica Bold Condensed".

The first algorithmic version of fonts was made by Donald Knuth in his Metafont description language and interpreter.

The TrueType font format introduced a scale from 100 through 900, which is also used in CSS and OpenType, where 400 is regular roman or plain.

The Mozilla Developer Network enable the coming after or as a or situation. of. rough mapping to typical font weight names:

Font mapping varies by font designer. A utility example is Bigelow and Holmes's Go Go font family. In this family, the "fonts have CSS numerical weights of 400, 500, and 600. Although CSS specifies 'Bold' as a 700 weight and 600 as Semibold or Demibold, the Go numerical weights match the actual progression of the ratios of stem thicknesses: Normal:Medium = 400:500; Normal:Bold = 400:600".

The terms normal, regular and plain sometimes book are used for the standard-weight font of a typeface. Where bothand differ, book is often lighter than regular, but in some typefaces this is the bolder.

Before the arrival of computers, each weight had to be drawn manually. As a result, many older multi-weight families such(a) as Gill Sans and Monotype Grotesque have considerable differences in weights from light to extra-bold. Since the 1980s, it has become common to use automation to construct a range of weights as points along a trend, multiple master or other parameterized font design. This means that many modern digital fonts such(a) as Myriad and TheSans are offered in a large range of weights which advertising a smooth and non-stop transition from one weight to the next, although some digital fonts are created with extensive manual corrections.

As digital font design ensures more variants to be created faster, a common developing in excellent font design is the use of "grades": slightly different weights intended for different types of paper and ink, or printing in a different region with different ambient temperature and humidity. For example, a thin design printed on book paper and a thicker design printed on high-gloss magazine paper may come out looking identical, since in the former issue the ink will soak and spread out more. Grades are offered with characters having the same width on all grades, so that a modify of printing materials does not affect copy-fit. Grades are common on serif fonts with their finer details.

Fonts in which the bold and non-bold letters have the same width are “duplexed”.

In European typefaces, especially Roman ones, a slope or slanted style is used to emphasize important words. This is called italic type or oblique type. These designs normally slant to the adjustment in left-to-right scripts. Oblique styles are often called italic, but differ from "true italic" styles.

Italic styles are more flowing than the normal typeface, approaching a more handwritten, cursive style, possibly using ligatures more usually or gaining swashes. Although rarely encountered, a typographic face may be accompanied by a matching calligraphic face cursive, script, giving an exaggeratedly italic style.

In many sans-serif and some serif typefaces, particularly in those with strokes of even thickness, the characters of the italic fonts are only slanted, which is often done algorithmically, without otherwise changing their appearance. Such oblique fonts are non true italics, because lowercase letter shapes do not change, but are often marketed as such. Fonts normally do not put both oblique and italic styles: the designer chooses to dispense one or the other.

Since italic styles clearly look different to regular roman styles, it is possible to have "upright italic" designs that take a more cursive form but move upright; Computer Modern is an example of a font that offers this style. In Latin-script countries, upright italics are rare but are sometimes used in mathematics or in complex documents where a section of text already in italics needs a "double italic" style to include emphasis to it. For example, the Cyrillic minuscule "т" may look like a smaller form of its majuscule "Т" or more like a roman small "m" as in its specifics italic appearance; in this case the distinction between styles is also a matter of local preference.

In Frutiger's nomenclature thedigit for upright fonts is a 5, for italic fonts a 6 and for condensed italic fonts an 8.

The two Japanese syllabaries, katakana and hiragana, are sometimes seen as two styles or typographic variants of each other, but usually are considered separate character sets as a few of the characters have separate kanji origins and the scripts are used for different purposes. The gothic style of the roman program with broken letter forms, on the other hand, is usually considered a mere typographic variant.

Cursive-only scripts such as Arabic also have different styles, in this case for example Naskh and Kufic, although these often depend on application, area or era.

There are other aspects that can differ among font styles, but more often these are considered intrinsic attribute of the typeface.[] These include the look of digits text figures and the minuscules, which may be smaller versions of the capital letters small caps although the program has developed characteristic shapes for them. Some typefaces do not include separate glyphs for the cases at all, thereby abolishing the bicamerality. While near of these use uppercase characters only, some labeled unicase survive whicheither the majuscule or the minuscule glyph at a common height for both characters.

Titling fonts are intentional for headlines and displays, and have stroke widths optimized for large sizes.

Some typefaces include fonts that reform the width of the characters stretch, although this feature is usually rarer than weight or slope. Narrower fonts are usually labeled compressed, condensed or narrow. In Frutiger's system, the moment digit of condensed fonts is a 7. Wider fonts may be called wide, extended or expanded. Both can be further classified by prepending extra, ultra or the like. Compressing a font design to a condensed weight is a complex task, requiring the strokes to be slimmed down proportionally and often making the capitals straight-sided. It is particularly common to see condensed fonts for sans-serif and slab-serif families, since it is relatively practical to change their structure to a condensed weight. Serif text faces are often only issued in the regular width.

These separate fonts have to be distinguished from techniques that make adjustments to the letter-spacing tonarrower or smaller words, especially for justified text alignment.

Most typefaces either have proportional or proportional and fixed-width tabular digits, where the former usually coincide with lowercase text figures and the latter with uppercase lining figures.

The width of a font will depend on its intended use. Times New Roman was intentional with the aim of having small width, to fit more text into a newspaper. On the other hand, Palatino has large width to increase readability. The "billing block" on a movie poster often uses extremely condensed type in order to meet union requirements on the people who must be credited and the font height relative to the rest of the poster.

Some excellent such as lawyers and surveyors digital typefaces include fonts that are optimised forsizes, for exemplification by using a thinner stroke weight whether they are intended for large-size display use, or by using ink traps if they are to be printed at small size on poor-quality paper. This was a natural feature in the metal type period for nearly typefaces, since each size would be cut separately and made to its own slightly different design. As an example of this, experienced Linotype designer Chauncey H. Griffith commented in 1947 that for a type he was workings on intended for newspaper use, the 6 point size was not 50% as wide as the 12 point size, but approximately 71%. However, it declined in use as pantograph engraving, and especially phototypesetting and digital fonts made printing the same font at any size simpler. A mild revival has taken place in recent years. Optical sizes are more common for serif fonts, since their typically finer detail and higher contrast benefits more from being bulked up for smaller sizes and made less overpowering at larger ones.

There are several naming schemes for such variant designs. One such scheme, invented and popularized by Adobe Systems, refers to the variant fonts by the a formal request to be considered for a position or to be allowed to do or have something. they are typically used for, with the exact point sizes intended varying slightly by typeface:

refers to metadata consisting of numeric values relating to size and space in the font overall, or in its individual glyphs. Font-wide metrics include cap height the height of the capitals, x-height the height of the lowercase letters and ascender height, descender depth, and the font bounding box. Glyph-level metrics include the glyph bounding box, the advance width the proper distance between the glyph's initial pen position and the next glyph's initial pen position, and sidebearings space that pads the glyph outline on either side. Many digital and some metal type fonts are able to be kerned so that characters can be fitted more closely; the pair "Wa" is a common example of this.

Some fonts, especially those intended for professional use, are duplexed: made with multiple weights having the same character width so that for example changing from regular to bold or italic does not affect word wrap. Sabon as originally designed was a notable example of this. This was a standard feature of the Linotype hot metal typesetting system with regular and italic being duplexed, requiring awkward design choices as italics normally are narrower than the roman.

A particularly important basic set of fonts that became an early standard in digital printing was the ] It is not a requirement that a metrically compatible design be identical to its origin in appearance except width.

Although most typefaces are characterised by their use of serifs, there are superfamilies that incorporate serif antiqua and sans-serif grotesque or even intermediate slab serif Egyptian or semi-serif fonts with the same base outlines.

A more common font variant, especially of serif typefaces, is that of alternate capitals. They can have swashes to go with italic minuscules or they can be of a flourish design for use as initials drop caps.

Typefaces may be made in variants for different uses. These may be issued as separate font files, or the different characters may be included in the same font file if the font is a modern format such as OpenType and the a formal request to be considered for a position or to be allowed to do or have something. used can assistance this.

Alternative characters are often called stylistic alternates. These may be switched on to permit users more flexibility to customise the font to suit their needs. The practice is not new: in the 1930s, Williams Caslon Text, a revival of the 18th century font Caslon, the default italic forms have many swashes matching the original design. For a more spare appearance, these can all be turned off at once by engaging stylistic set 4. Junicode, intended for academic publishing, uses ss15 to enable a variant form of "e" used in medieval Latin. A corporation commissioning a modified description of a commercial font for their own use, meanwhile, might a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority that their preferred alternates be set to default.

It is common for fonts intended for use in books for young children to use simplified, single-storey forms of the lowercase letters a and g sometimes also y and l; these may be called infant or schoolbook alternates. They are traditionally believed to be easier for children to read and less confusing as they resemble the forms used in handwriting. Often schoolbook characters are released as a supplement to popular families such as Akzidenz-Grotesk, Gill Sans and Bembo; a well-known font intended specifically for school use is Sassoon Sans.

Besides alternate characters, in the metal type era The New York Times commissioned custom condensed single sorts for common long title that might oftenin news headings, such as "Eisenhower", "Chamberlain" or "Rockefeller".

Fonts can have multiple kinds of digits, including, as described above, proportional variable width and tabular fixed width as alive as lining uppercase height and text lowercase height figures. They may also include separate shapes for superscript and subscript digits. Professional fonts may include even more complex settings for typesetting digits, such as digits intended to match the height of small caps. In addition, some fonts such as Adobe’s Acumin and Neue Haas Grotesk digitisation advertisement two heights of lining uppercase height figures: one slightly lower than cap height, intended to blend better into non-stop text, and one at precisely the cap height to look better in combination with capitals for uses such as UK postcodes. With the OpenType format, it is possible to bundle all these into a single digital font file, but earlier font releases may have only one type per file.