C++


C++ is the C++ compilers, including a Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel, Oracle, & IBM, so it is usable on many platforms.

C++ was designed with an orientation toward systems programming as alive as embedded, resource-constrained software & large systems, with performance, efficiency, and flexibility of usage as its profile highlights. C++ has also been found useful in numerous other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications, video games, servers e.g. e-commerce, web search, or databases, and performance-critical a formal a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an control to be considered for a position or to be provides to throw or hit something. e.g. telephone switches or space probes.

C++ is standardized by the informally invited as specifications library. ago the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an consultation of the C language; he wanted an a grownup engaged or qualified in a profession. and flexible Linguistic communication similar to C that also reported high-level features for code organization. Since 2012, C++ has been on a three-year release schedule with C++23 as the next noted standard.

History


In 1979, Simula had qualities that were very helpful for large software development, but the language was too unhurried for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development. When Stroustrup started workings in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing. Remembering his PhD experience, Stroustrup generation out to updating the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable and widely used. As living as C and Simula's influences, other languages also influenced this new language, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML.

Initially, Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added qualifications to the C compiler, Cpre, including classes, derived classes, strong typing, inlining and default arguments.

In 1982, Stroustrup started to introducing a successor to C with Classes, which he named "C++" ++ being the Cfront.

In 1984, Stroustrup implemented the number one stream input/output library. The conviction of providing an output operator rather than a named output function was suggested by Doug McIlroy who had before suggested Unix pipes.

In 1985, the number one edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive credit for the language, as there was not yet an official standard. The first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.

In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updatededition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 described multinational inheritance, summary classes, static member functions, const member functions, and protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published. This hold became the basis for the future standard. Later feature additions included templates, exceptions, namespaces, new casts, and a Boolean type.

In 1998, C++98 was released, standardizing the language, and a minor refreshing C++03 was released in 2003.

After C++98, C++ evolved relatively slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 specifics was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, and providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 improvements released in December 2014, various new additions were made in C++17. After becoming finalized in February 2020, a draft of the C++20 standard was approved on 4 September 2020 and officially published on 15 December 2020.

On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".

As of 2022TIOBE index, a degree of the popularity of programming languages, after Python, C and Java.

According to Stroustrup, "the construct signifies the evolutionary classification of the make adjustments to from C". This name is credited to Rick Mascitti mid-1983 and was first used in December 1983. When Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 approximately the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator which increments the value of a variable and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program.

During C++'s coding period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes" before acquiring itsname.

Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles:

C++ is standardized by an ISO works corporation invited as JTC1/SC22/WG21. So far, it has published six revisions of the C++ standard and is currently working on the next revision, C++23.

In 1998, the ISO working group standardized C++ for the first time as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, which is informally requested as C++98. In 2003, it published a new representation of the C++ standard called ISO/IEC 14882:2003, which fixed problems identified in C++98.

The next major revision of the standard was informally referred to as "C++0x", but it was not released until 2011. C++11 14882:2011 included many additions to both the core language and the standard library.

In 2014, C++14 also known as C++1y was released as a small extension to C++11, featuring mainly bug fixes and small improvements. The Draft International Standard ballot procedures completed in mid-August 2014.

After C++14, a major revision C++17, informally known as C++1z, was completed by the ISO C++ committee in mid July 2017 and was approved and published in December 2017.

As part of the standardization process, ISO also publishes technical reports and specifications:

More technical specifications are in development and pending approval, including new set of concurrency extensions.